Sangiran 2

-7.33, 110.97
Date min:
900,000 Bp
Date max:
900,000 Bp
Homo, Homo erectus
Time periods:
Calabrian, Pleistocene
Calvaria Sangiran II (B)

Calvaria Sangiran II (B)

Sangiran 2 or Pithecanthropus II is the first Homo erectus fossil found in the Sangiran site. In 1937, anthropologist Gustav Heinrich Ralph von Koenigswald obtained this fossilized upper cranium from a local inhabitant [1]. It was discovered in Bapang village [2]


Sangiran 2 is an adult Homo erectus calvaria lacking much of the cranial base and the entire face. Because its cranial sutures are fused endo- and ectocranially, it is considered to have been older at the time of its death than other Sangiran hominids except Sangiran 4 [2][3][4][5].

It was previously placed at just below Middle Tuff in the Bapang Formation [2][6], but should be relocated to the Grenzbank zone based on bone fluorine content [7] and a geological resurvey of the find site [8][9]. Placing Sangiran 2 at Grenzbank zone would give it a date of ~0.9 Ma, since Grenzbank is securely anchored at ~0.9 Ma [10]


Cited References

  1. 1.

  2. 2.

  3. 3.

    The brain and its role in the phylogenetic transformation of the human skull

    Transactions of the American Philosophical Society 31(5)

  4. 4.

  5. 5.

    Endocranial Hyperostosis in Sangiran 2, Gibraltar 1, and Shanidar 5

    American Journal of Physical Anthropology 102(1)

  6. 6.

    Geology and stratigraphy of the Sangiran area. Quaternary Geology of the Hominid Fossil Bearing Formations in Java. In Report of the Indonesia-Japan Joint Research Project CTA-41, 1976-1979

    Republic of Indonesia, Ministry of Mines and Energy, Directorate General of Geology and Mineral Resources, Geological Research and Development Centre

  7. 7.

  8. 8.

  9. 9.

  10. 10.

This page was last edited on November 10, 2022 at 10:55:20 UTC