Site Name
Site Type
Site Function
Time Period
  • Researched sites
  • Wikipedia sites
  • Unconfirmed sites
Age MinAge Max
Abric RomaniSpainCave44000110000
Abri de Cap BlancFranceShelter
Abri de Cro-MagnonFrance
Abri de la MadeleineFranceShelter
Abri de LausselFranceShelter
Abri PataudFranceShelter
Alepotrypa CaveGreece
Allia BayKenya39000004200000

What are "Sites" according to Gignos?

Gignos is a catalog of archaeological sites which are defined traditionally as a place of historic or prehistoric significance that contain specimens or evidence of human activity which is preserved. The Gignos catalog is focused on archaeological sites that are older than 10K years and classified as pre-historic.

Archaeological finds can consist of a single specimen to hundreds of thousands of specimens from a locality. The term Site is loosely used in our context to represent a very specific location where a single specimen was found as well as a broader grouping of locations where many specimens were found.[1]

Why 10,000 years old?

10,000 years old is a nice round number! It also signifies a period of time when the human world was in transition. At approximately 10,000 years ago the last ice age was coming to a close, and Homo sapiens were the last remaining hominid branch to make it through the gauntlet of our evolutionary human family tree.

How many 10,000 year old Archaeological Sites are there on planet earth?

The short answer is that so far Gignos knows about roughly 477 sites. Of those 477 sites we have published 15 with rich content pages. The long answer is that we don't know and there are likely thousands upon thousands of sites that are waiting to be discovered. We hope to help everyone discover more information about existing known sites, and we hope that those discoveries will lead us to more undiscovered sites.

What are Paleoanthropological Archaeology Sites?

Paleoanthropological archaeology sites are locations where evidence of early human activity and evolution has been found. These sites can include places where ancient human fossils have been discovered, as well as areas where stone tools and other artifacts from early human cultures have been found.

Paleoanthropological archaeology sites are often found in regions with a long history of human occupation, such as Africa, Asia, and Europe. These sites are important for understanding the development of human cultures and societies over time, as well as the physical and biological evolution of our species. Researchers who study these sites are known as paleoanthropologists, and they use a variety of techniques, such as radiocarbon dating and analysis of stone tools and other artifacts, to learn about the lives of our ancestors.

Recently Added Sites

Vanguard Cave

Vanguard Cave is a natural sea cave in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar which is part of the Gorham's Cave complex. This complex of four caves has been nominated as a UNESCO World Heritage Site status in 2016. The cave complex is one of the last known habitations of the Neanderthals, with a period of inhabitation from 55,000 to 28,000 years ago. It is located on the southeast face of the Rock of Gibraltar.

Vanguard Cave is a site of continuing archaeological interest. There was a long investigation in August 2012 that involved an international team brought to Gibraltar. The team spent three weeks excavating at Gorham's cave and three weeks at Vanguard.

In September 2021, archaeologists from the Gibraltar National Museum led by Prof Clive Finlayson announced the discovery of a 40,000 year-old Neanderthal cave chamber in the Gorham's Cave Complex, including a carving that may have been early Neanderthal artwork.

Gorham's Cave

Gorham's Cave (Spanish: Cueva de Gorham, pronounced [ɡoˈɾam]) is a sea-level cave in the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. Though not a sea cave, it is often mistaken for one. Considered to be one of the last known habitations of the Neanderthals in Europe, the cave gives its name to the Gorham's Cave complex, which is a combination of four distinct caves of such importance that they are combined into a UNESCO World Heritage Site, the only one in Gibraltar. The three other caves are Vanguard Cave, Hyaena Cave, and Bennett's Cave.

It is located at Governor's Beach on the southeastern face of the Rock of Gibraltar. When first inhabited some 55,000 years ago, it would have been approximately 5 km (3.1 mi) from the shore, but, due to changes in sea level, it is now only a few metres from the Mediterranean Sea.

Excavation of this site has resulted in the discovery of four layers of stratigraphy, one below the other:

  • Level I has produced evidence for eighth to third centuries BC use by Phoenicians.
  • Level II produced evidence for brief Neolithic use.
  • Level III has yielded at least 240 Upper Paleolithic artefacts of Magdalenian and Solutrean origin.
  • Level IV has produced 103 items, including spear points, knives, and scraping devices that are identified as Mousterian, and shows repeated use over thousands of years.

Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) dating gives dates for level IV of between 33 and 23 thousand years before the present (kyr BP)—the researchers felt that the uncertainties at this time depth made calibration impractical. They suggest occupation until at least 28 kyr BP and possibly 24 kyr BP.

No fossil remains have been found that would allow identification pointing to either Neanderthal or anatomically modern human inhabitants, nor associated with findings of a modern human in a site at nearby Abrigo do Lagar Velho, Portugal of 24,500 years ago who may have featured Neanderthal genetic admixtures,[9] although Mousterian culture normally is identified with Neanderthals in Europe.

Devil's Tower

The Devil's Tower was an ancient watchtower in the British Overseas Territory of Gibraltar close to a rock shelter where fossil remains of a Neanderthal child were discovered, together with palaeolithic tools. The Tower and remains, however, were unrelated.

The Devil's Tower skull was that of a Neanderthal child. The remains were excavated by Dorothy Garrod in a Mousterian shelter on the site. There is evidence of an injury to the mouth, and the teeth show developmental disorders consistent with seasonal starvation. The classic Neanderthal large brain case is evident and the brow ridges have started to develop. The skull substantially reinforced the evidence of the Neanderthals of Gibraltar.

Most of the lower jaw has survived, along with the frontal bone, most of the right side of the face, and the left parietal bone.

Tsona Cave

Tsona Cave (Georgian: წონის მღვიმე) is an archaeological site at the head of the river Qvirila in proximity of village Tson (Georgian: წონა, Ossetian: Цъон) in the Java Municipality in Shida Kartli in Georgia. The site is close to the Bouba-Kakheri pass at south of the Caucasus range.


Gignos Sites terms and metadata

Site Name

The name of the archaeological site or locality which contains the collection of specimens or reminense of human habitation or usage.

Site Identifier

The scientific identifier usually originating from a publication or journal or museum catalog system usually a unique identifier

Site Types

The category of physical characterisitics of the site. Currently this attribute includes Cave,  Open-air, and Shelter. Can be expanded to include more in future.

Site Usage

Refers to the general usage of the site by it's inhabitants. This attribute includes the optoins for 'Habitation' and 'Decorative' referring to whether the site was used for habitation and/or contains works of art.

Date Range Min and Max

The Date Range of the site is gleaned from what we know from our researched sources about the site. It is also informed by the oldest and youngest dates on the related specimens that were found within the locality.


The location metadata has been made less precise on purpose to help protect cultural resources wherever possible. All of the data in the Gignos catalog is aggregated from existing sources, and as such we are avoiding any further granularity of information regarding locations than already exists in the public domain.


Cited References

  1. 1.

This page was last edited on December 19, 2022 at 04:05:12 UTC