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  • Specimens

    Showing 1 - 5 out of 133

    • KNM-ER 1804

      KNM-ER 1804 is a mandible fragment attributed to Paranthropus boisei. It was recovered from Area 104 of Koobi Fora. The specimen was stratigraphically located at 4m below the A2 marker and is dated to ~1.78 Ma [1][2][3].

    • KNM-ER 810A

      KNM-ER 810 A is a left mandible fragment with symphysis classified as that of a Paranthropus boisei. It was found in Area 104 of Koobi Fora [1][2]. It was stratigraphically located 4m below the A2 marker in KBS member and is dated to ~1.78 Ma [3][4].

    • KNM-ER 810B

      KNM-ER 810B is a lower left third molar classified as that of a Paranthropus boisei. It was found in Area 104 of Koobi Fora [1][2]. It was stratigraphically located 4m below the A2 marker in KBS member and is dated to ~1.78 Ma [3][4].

    • KNM-ER 812

      KNM-ER 812 is a mandible fragment attributed to a juvenile Paranthropus boisei. The heavily eroded fragment retains some parts of the retained roots of the deciduous canine and first and second deciduous molars remain preserved occlusally, all the crowns of these teeth have been lost [1][2].  It has a stratigraphical position of 4m beneath the base of A2 in Area 104 of Koobi Fora and is dated to ~1.78 Ma [3].

    • KNM-ER 814A

      KNM-ER 814A is a left frontal fragment of the cranium of a Paranthropus boisei. It was found in Area 104 of Koobi Fora [1][2]. It was stratigraphically located 4m below the A2 marker in KBS member and is dated to ~1.78 Ma [3][4]

  • Classifications

    Showing 1 - 5 out of 86

    • Homo habilis

      Homo habilis ("handy man") is an extinct species of archaic human from the Early Pleistocene of East and South Africa about 2.31 million years ago to 1.65 million years ago. Homo habilis was highly contested when first proposed, with many researchers recommending it be synonymised with Australopithecus africanus, the only other early hominin known at the time, but Homo habilis received more recognition as time went on and more relevant discoveries were made. By the 1980s, Homo habilis was proposed to have been a human ancestor, directly evolving into Homo erectus which directly led to modern humans. This viewpoint is now debated. Several specimens with insecure species identification were assigned to H. habilis, leading to arguments for splitting, namely into "H. rudolfensis" and "H. gautengensis" of which only the former has received wide support.

      Like contemporary Homo, Homo habilis brain size generally varied from 500–900 cm3 (31–55 cu in). The body proportions of Homo habilis are only known from two highly fragmentary skeletons, and is based largely on assuming a similar anatomy to the earlier australopithecines. Because of this, it has also been proposed Homo habilis be moved to the genus Australopithecus as Australopithecus habilis. However, the interpretation of Homo habilis as a small-statured human with inefficient long distance travel capabilities has been challenged. The presumed female specimen OH 62 is traditionally interpreted as having been 100–120 cm (3 ft 3 in – 3 ft 11 in) in height and 20–37 kg (44–82 lb) in weight assuming australopithecine-like proportions, but assuming humanlike proportions she would have been about 148 cm (4 ft 10 in) and 35 kg (77 lb). Nonetheless, Homo habilis may have been at least partially arboreal like what is postulated for australopithecines. Early hominins are typically reconstructed as having thick hair and marked sexual dimorphism with males much larger than females, though relative male and female size is not definitively known.

    • Homo denisovans

      Denisovans were an extinct species or subspecies of humans that lived in Asia during the Lower and Middle Paleolithic. There are few fossils described as Denisovans, most of what is known about them comes from DNA evidence. No formal species name has been established pending more complete fossil material.

      The First Denisovan fossil was identified in 2010 through DNA analysis which was derived off of the study of mitochondrial DNA from a juvenile female finger bone. The same locality where this fossil was found also contained evidence of neanderthal occupation. It's unknown if the two types of humans ever cohabitated at the same time in this location. 

      Denisovans might represent a new species of Homo or subspecies of sapiens, but there are too few fossils to erect a proper taxon. Proposed species names for Denisovans are Homo denisova or Homo altaiensis.

    • Homo naledi

      Homo naledi is an extinct species of archaic human discovered in 2013 in the Rising Star Cave, Cradle of Humankind, South Africa dating to the Middle Pleistocene 335,000–236,000 years ago. The initial discovery comprises 1,550 specimens, representing 737 different elements, and at least 15 different individuals. Despite this exceptionally high number of specimens, their classification with other Homo remains unclear.

      Along with similarities to contemporary Homo, they share several characteristics with the ancestral Australopithecus and early Homo as well (mosaic evolution), most notably a small cranial capacity of 465–610 cm3 (28.4–37.2 cu in), compared to 1,270–1,330 cm3 (78–81 cu in) in modern humans. They are estimated to have averaged 143.6 cm (4 ft 9 in) in height and 39.7 kg (88 lb) in weight, yielding a small encephalization quotient of 4.5. Nonetheless, H. naledi brain anatomy seems to have been similar to contemporary Homo, which could indicate comparable cognitive complexity. The persistence of small-brained humans for so long in the midst of bigger-brained contemporaries revises the previous conception that a larger brain would necessarily lead to an evolutionary advantage, and their mosaic anatomy greatly expands the known range of variation for the genus.

      H. naledi anatomy indicates that, though they were capable of long-distance travel with a humanlike stride and gait, they were more arboreal than other Homo, better adapted to climbing and suspensory behaviour in trees than endurance running. Tooth anatomy suggests consumption of gritty foods covered in particulates such as dust or dirt. Though they have not been associated with stone tools or any indication of material culture, they appear to have been dextrous enough to produce and handle tools, and likely manufactured Early or Middle Stone Age industries. It has also been controversially postulated that these individuals were given funerary rites, and were carried into and placed in the chamber. In December 2022, suggestions that H. naledi used fire for light and cooking were reported.[1]

    • Hylobatidae

      Lesser apes

  • Sites

    Showing 1 - 5 out of 645

    • Dmanisi

      The Dmanisi site in Georgia is famous for producing the first evidence of hominin dispersal outside of Africa [1][2]. It is well known for its diverse fauna, early human remains, and stone artefacts. Occupation of the site dates to shortly after 1.85 million years ago until 1.77 million years ago [3].

      The Dmanisi Skulls 1 to 5 are highly significant within the study of early hominin migrations out of Africa. Though their precise classification is controversial and highly debated [4], having five skulls from one site provides an unprecedented opportunity to study variation in what was presumably a single population [5].

    • Koobi Fora Area 104

      Area 104 collection area in the Koobi Fora region has contributed great evidence for hominin evolution by providing fossil evidence from various taxa such as Homo ergaster and  Paranthropus boisei [1][2].

    • Liang Bua Cave

      The limestone cave of Liang Bua is located on the Indonesian island of Flores. Liang Bua 1 (LB1), a nearly complete skull and several postcranial remains of a young adult female, became the holotype for the controversial Homo floresiensis, an extinct hominin notable for its small cranium, reflecting a tiny brain, and short stature with disproportionate limbs, was discovered at this site [1].

    • Sangiran

      Sangiran is a UNESCO World Heritage site located in Central Java, Indonesia. It is one of the key sites for the understanding of human evolution that illustrates the development of Homo sapiens sapiens, over two million years from the Lower Pleistocene to the present through understanding fossils and artefactual material that it has produced. It became famous after the discovery of Homo erectus remains and associated stone artifacts (Sangiran flake industry) in the 1930s. It also yields important archaeological occupation floors dating back to the Lower Pleistocene [1].

    • Zhoukoudian Locality 1

      Zhoukoudian Locality 1 also known as the Peking Man Site is a cave site in Beijing famous for the discovery of the first fossils of Peking Man or Homo erectus pekinensis [1]. With a find of 6 fairly complete hominin crania and bones representing at least 40 individuals, 98 species of non-hominin mammalian fossils, and tens of thousands of stone artefacts, Zhoukoudian Locality 1 has remained the largest single source of Homo erectus (pekinensis) and is one of the most important palaeolithic sites in the world [2][3][4][5][6].

  • Time Periods

    Showing 1 - 5 out of 14

  • News

    Showing 1 - 5 out of 456