Specimen number:
41.33, 44.2
Date min:
1,800,000 Bp
Date max:
1,800,000 Bp
Homo, Homo erectus, Homo georgicus
Time periods:
Calabrian, Pleistocene
Dmanisi-D3444. Homo erectus or Homo georgicus

Dmanisi-D3444. Homo erectus or Homo georgicus

D3444 is a hominin skull found in the Dmanisi site in Georgia. Skull 3 is made up of D3444 and D2600 (mandible). This individual is notable in that it lost all but one tooth and could have only survived by eating food that did not require heavy chewing, such as soft plants and animal food, or by receiving help from other individuals [1][2][3].


The D3444 skull and its associated mandible D3900 were recovered during the 2002-2004 field seasons. They were recovered 35 cm apart in Stratum B1 in Block 2, in a heterogeneous granular to sandy silt that serves as the basal fill of a broad gully formed along the axis of a collapsed pipe. They were found alongside stone artefacts and eight animal bones with cut and percussion marks indicating carcass processing and meat-eating [1][4]

The skull belonged to an elderly male with a cranial capacity of approximately 650 cm3. Its overall morphology is similar to that of the other Dmanisi individuals (excluding Skull 5), except that it is edentulous. The complete resorption of the tooth sockets and extensive remodeling of the alveolar process indicates that all of the maxillary teeth were lost before death. All sockets in the mandibula except those for the canine teeth have been resorbed, and only the left canine remained at the time of death [5][1][4]

The D3444/D3900 individual appears to have survived for a long period without consuming food that required heavy chewing. It is possible that it survived by consuming softer plant foods and extracting animal brain and marrow with stone tools and manuports, or through the assistance of other individuals. This provides an interesting view of the social structure, life history, and subsistence strategies of the early Homo [1][4]

The Dmanisi site has fueled an ongoing discussion over whether the Dmanisi hominins were an early form of Homo erectus, a distinct species called Homo georgicus, or something else. With this, their classification is still not settled [6]


Cited References

  1. 1.

  2. 2.

    The History of Early Homo

    The History of Early Homo

  3. 3.

  4. 4.

    A fourth hominin skull from Dmanisi, Georgia

    The Anatomical Record Part A Discoveries in Molecular Cellular and Evolutionary Biology 288 (11)

  5. 5.

  6. 6.


    The International Encyclopedia of Biological Anthropology

This page was last edited on November 10, 2022 at 11:22:40 UTC