Afontova Gora II

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56.02, 92.73
Russian Federation
Time periods:
Pleistocene, Tarantian

Afontova Gora II is the site where human fossil remains were found. The site was first excavated in 1912-1914 by V.I. Gromov. In 1924, G.P. Sosnovsky, N.K. Auerbach, and V.I. Gromov discovered the first human fossils at the site. The remains of mammoth, Arctic fox, Arctic hare, reindeer, bison, and horse were discovered at the site.

Afontova Gora II consists of 7 layers. Layer 3 from Afontova Gora II is the most significant: the layer produced the largest amount of cultural artefacts and is the layer where the human fossil remains were discovered. Over 20,000 artefacts were discovered at layer 3: this layer produced over 450 tools and over 250 osseous artefacts (bone, antler, ivory). The fossils of two distinct individuals were discovered in the initial excavations: the upper premolar of an 11- to 15-year-old child and the left radius, ulna, humerus, phalanx, and frontal bone of an adult.


Age MinAge Max
Afontova Gora 21700017000
Afontova Gora 3Mandible, Teeth1609016090