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45.98, -110.65
Date min:
12,556 Bp
Date max:
12,707 Bp
Homo, Homo sapiens
Time periods:
Tarantian, Pleistocene

Anzick-1 is a Paleo-Indian male infant whose remains were found in south central Montana, United States, in 1968, and date to 13,000–12,850 years BP. The child was found with more than 115 tools made of stone and antlers and dusted with red ocher, suggesting an honorary burial. Anzick-1 is the only human who has been discovered from the Clovis Complex, and is the first ancient Native American genome to be fully sequenced.

Paleogenomic analysis of the remains revealed Siberian ancestry and a close genetic relationship to modern Native Americans, including those of Central and South America. These findings support the hypothesis that modern Native Americans are descended from Asian populations who crossed Beringia between 23,000 and 14,000 years ago.

Anzick-1's discovery and subsequent analysis has been controversial. The remains were found on private land, so compliance with the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) was not required in their study. However, some Native American tribal members in Montana felt they should have been consulted before the researchers undertook analysis of the infant's skeleton and genome. Montana State law does require consultation with Native Americans concerning disposition of ancient skeletal remains.

After consultation Anzick-1 was reburied on June 28, 2014, in the Shields River Valley in an intertribal ceremony. The numerous Clovis artifacts associated with the first burial are curated at the Montana Historical Society in Helena, Montana.