Ksar Akil 2

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Ksar Akil
33.91, 35.6

In 1947 a fragment of a maxilla designated Ksar Akil 2, and referred to as Ethelruda, was discovered in material from level XXVI or XXV, at around 15 m (49 ft), which is stratigraphically deeper than Egbert. The layer that Ksar Akil 2 was found in is the start of the Initial Upper Paleolithic in the Levant. An Emireh point was also found at this level.

Ethelruda was thought to be lost for many years but was relocated to storage at the National Museum of Beirut.

The maxilla was originally described as a "Neanderthaloid" adult female on the basis of its similarity to fossils from Tabun I, Skhul IV and V, Gibraltar, and La Chapelle-aux-Saints 1. However, these similarities have since been questioned. For instance, due to its small size and tooth sockets, Ksar Akil 2 has been described as similar to the maxilla Skhul V, which was originally thought to be a Neanderthal but is now considered to be an archaic Homo sapiens. On the other hand, the nasal floor is depressed, and the specimen lacks a canine fossa, both of which are features of Neanderthals. The original illustrations of this material have proved insufficient to prove for certain whether Ethelruda is Homo sapiens or Neanderthal or a hybrid.

Radiocarbon dating and Bayesian modeling support an age range of 42.4–41.7 ka BP for Ethelruda.