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The archaeological site Niederbieber is an important representative of the Federmesser culture. Dating to the end of the Pleistocene, the site is one of the most extensively excavated archaeological sites dating to the late Upper Palaeolithic. Finds and features are extraordinarily well preserved as the site was protected by fallout from the Laacher See volcanic eruption approximately 12,900 years ago. Comprehensive archaeological studies have provided a detailed view of activities and settlement dynamics of hunter-gatherer groups at the end of the ice age.

An arrow shaft smoother made of red sandstone was discovered during the excavation of area II in 1981. The object is engraved (see below) and measures 71 × 34 × 22mm. Both in terms of function and artistic expression, the arrow smoother is one of the most superb finds from Niederbieber. Arrow shaft smoothers are characteristic tool types of the Federmesser culture. They were used in pairs and also serve as indirect evidence for the increasing reliance on bow and arrow. In the case of Niederbieber, the presence of the arrow smoother indicates manufacture or repair of hunting weapons.

The unusual decoration of the arrow smoother with a stylised woman figure of the Gönnersdorf type is a rare example of artistic expressions dating to this period. Stylistically the engraving is a continuation of the engravings of women known from the Magdalenian site Gönnersdorf (located about 15 km northwest of Niederbieber) and thus serves as an example for the continuation of this particular tradition in the region.