The Artenac Cave is a prehistoric site located in the town of Saint-Mary, in Charente, about twenty kilometers northeast of Angoulême.
It is the eponymous site of the Artenacien, a Neolithic culture from the 3rd millennium BC.
Layers IIb, IV and V (Middle Pleistocene) yielded some cut flints. The settlement of humans is only from the Late Pleistocene, with two phases of occupation: layers IV and 10; and layers 8 to 5.
The first traces of human passage are dated to 350,000 years ago - the oldest in the region. The maxilla of an elderly Neanderthal and a fragment of a skull were found by Jean-François Tournepiche and Anne Delagnes.