Cueva de Bolomor
Cueva de Bolomor, or Bolomor Cave, is an archaeological site near Tavernes de la Valldigna in the Valencian Community, Spain. It was occupied over a long period of time, between 350,000 and 120,000 years ago.
Four Neanderthal remains have been recovered in excavations that were begun in 1989: a fragment of a fibula, two teeth, and a nearly complete parietal bone from an adult. All date from the late Middle/early Late Pleistocene. The thickness of the cortical bone in the fibula indicates it came from non-modern man.
Archaeologists recognize a stratigraphy of 17 layers, dated between 350 and 121,000 years ago. Three main periods of occupation are recognized: 350,000 years ago, 200,000 to 150,000 years ago, and 120,000 years ago. Human occupants ate a wide variety of animals, including ungulates of all sizes, besides tortoises and birds. Throughout the occupation, they ate young elephants. A relative rarity for the Middle Pleistocene is the frequency with which the remains of rabbits, marked with cuts, are found; such small, quick prey is unusual for the period and is most likely a specific feature of a unique locality.
Any prey, including young elephants, would have had to be carried up the steep 100-meter (330 ft) slope. Flake production dominated the flint technology, fire was habitually used, and there was lithic recycling; the Levallois technique was not often used, and no handaxes were found. It is postulated that the site represents a transition from an Acheulean to a post-Acheulean mode of living, which may have taken place between Marine Isotope Stages 9 and 7. Bolomor is one of "numerous European sites [that] attest new technological behavior oriented toward long and complex knapping methods, with long and complex repetitive core reduction, predetermined flake shape, and tool standardization". Layers with scrapers and denticulate tools alternate. Fifteen hearths, in age, ranging between 250,000 and 100,000 years old, are being studied. Some of the hearths were lined with stone.